Scientists and politicians around the world agree on the importance of healthy soils for human health, which is why Sdg Goal 3 calls for a healthy environment for all people (UN, 2017). At this time, there is no way to accurately analyse the criteria 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124 or the goal 3.9, “By 2030 reduce the death rate and illnesses caused by harmful chemical pollution in air, water, and soil,” because there is no way to measure soil pollution.
The difficulty in establishing a link between soil contamination and adverse health effects necessitates the absence of an indicator. The link between soil contamination and disease is complex and depends on a number of different factors, including:
Humans are exposed to a variety of pollutants at different times and concentrations throughout their lives. Throughout our lives, we are exposed to a wide variety of contaminant mixes, some of which may have beneficial, some of which may be harmful, and some of which may be neutral.
Inhalation, ingestion, or dermal absorption are three of the most common methods of exposure, and they typically occur simultaneously.
As a source of exposure, soil pollutants can enter the human body through any of the following media: soil, dust, air, water, or food. All of the above can happen at the same time or separately.
persons with pre-existing illnesses and the most vulnerable members of society such as newborns and children are more vulnerable than healthy adults. Because of their eating culture, socioeconomic position, & proximity to pollution sources, geophagists are at a higher risk of exposure.
Recent scientific research shows that soil contamination has negative effects on human health and main exposure routes, and the need for increased surveillance of health hazards includes developing harmonised and accurate indicators of soil pollution.
It is estimated that just 49 countries get an entity with a mandate that collect health data that is impacted by the environment, but often the acquired data is not made available to the general public. An environmental disease burden indicator has been established by the World Health Organization (WHO) as part of a Global Health Observatory, which includes only those diseases and deaths caused by air, soil, as well as water pollution to chemicals and hazardous agents; ultraviolet and ionising radiation; built environments; noise as well as electromagnetic fields (WHO, 2020a). However, soil contaminants can enter the human body through the consumption of hazardous food, which is a common occurrence. Even though parasite-infested foods are included in the WHO indicator listed above, food polluted with high amounts of inorganic pollutants is not.
The most recent worldwide statistics is from 2012, however it shows that environmental causes were responsible for approximately 23% of global mortality (12.6 billion deaths), with the percentage rising to 28% for children under the age of four.